分类目录归档:TED演讲推介(摘要)

每次以1000字左右的篇幅介绍一个TED演讲。

关于宇宙存在的探索故事

为什么宇宙存在?为什么不是什么都没有呢?哲学家科学家都努力对这些“终极存在”的问题做出解释。

将存在的原因归于上帝是其中一个解释,17、18世纪之交的德国哲学家兼物理学家Leibniz认为存在的问题根本不神秘,世界为什么存在,因为上帝创造了它。上帝是如此强大,他能从“无”中生“有”,甚至反之亦然。但这个观点有一个问题:强大万能的上帝从哪里来?

就算是上帝,也有可能会思考关于存在的终极问题——“我从哪里来?”有一个理论解释道,因为上帝对思考自己的存在之谜感到了厌倦,所以他创造了世界以之来分散注意力。

除了上帝,科学是人们努力用之解释存在的另一个途径。科学至今已为我们提供了很多可信的理论支持,同样的信心也作用于研究存在的问题上。那么在科学方面,我们对存在的问题有哪些观点呢?

美国物理学家Lawrence Krauss在他的著作“A Universe from Nothing”里表达了他对宇宙存在的观点:子场论能告诉我们宇宙是如何从“无”中产生的,假真空(False vacuum)的某些波动可以催生出存在,然后,因为暴胀(inflation),产生了我们所知的广阔、多变的宇宙。

美国理论物理学家Steven Weinberg认为存在所有的可能性;类似的观点也得到了物理学家Max Tegmark的支持,他认为所有的数学结构都是存在的,数学存在和物理存在是一回事,因此我们拥有丰富的多元宇宙,包含了每一个逻辑可能性。

现在我们面临两个极点:一边是全然的“无”,另一边是有着全部可能性的世界。在这两者之间,存在各式各样的拥有不同可能性的世界。Jim Holt认为我们所生活的这个世界,是其中一个随机产生的不完美的世界,它既有好的成分也有坏的成分,但我们可以通过行动去将好的放大,坏的缩小,这也同时给了我们一份生活的目的。

《宇宙为何会存在——Jim Holt

关于讲者

Jim Holt是一位美国著名哲学家,目前于哥伦比亚大学哲学系任职。他同时也给《纽约时报》、《纽约客》等多家刊物撰稿,话题涉及弦理论、时间、数学、无限、幽默、逻辑等。

撰稿 陈飘扬

编辑 王鹏 

我们离智能机器人还有多远

    随着电影《超能陆战队》的热映,一只叫大白(Baymax)的医疗机器人占领了大家的视线。我们距离拥有这样一个治愈系暖男的陪伴,还有多远?下边几个TED也许能给我们答案。

我们为什么要找机器人帮忙
Rodney Brooks

    危言耸听者总爱说:机器人会抢夺人类的饭碗。其实,机器人能成为我们必不可少的好帮手,帮我们从机械反复的工作中解脱出来,去做更有意思的事情。Rodney Brooks指出,随着适龄工作的成年人数量的下降,以及退休人员数量的膨胀,机器人可以发挥相当重要的作用。他介绍了一个叫Baxter的机器人。这个机器人的“眼睛”能动,而且它的“手”可以感知,这样他就能在上了年纪的人群身边工作——学会如何帮他们打理生活。

情感丰富的机器人

David Hanson

    David Hanson的机器人有表情丰富的脸,不管是看起来或是动起来都很人性化。它们认得情绪,也会响应,并且能够展现自己的情绪。接下来的视频中,爱因斯坦机器人将展示极富情感的表演,让我们一窥机器人模仿真实人类的科幻未来。

个人机器人的兴起
Cynthia Breazeal

    作为一名研究生,Cynthia Breazeal疑惑为什么我们在火星上却不是在房间里使用机器人。她认为的关键点是:要训练机器人与人类互动。她梦想并且设计出可以教授、学习和游戏的机器人。接下来观看一段与小孩子互动游戏的很棒的演示视频。

    相信不用等太久,在科学家和技术宅们的不断努力下,我们都能够拥有这样一个又萌又暖心的健康顾问啦(●—●)你是不是和我一样期待呐?

撰稿 王鹏

编辑 Lynn

跳槽季,TED帮你拒绝浮躁(下)


    承接《跳槽季,六个TED帮你拒绝浮躁》的上篇,我们继续向大家推荐与职场相关的TED Talks,希望能在这个跳槽季给大家一些灵感。

可能不会有人跟你说的职场建议

苏珊·可兰特欧诺

    你的每项工作都做得很对,采取了正确的建议,但你就是没有进步,为什么?苏珊·克兰特欧诺分享了一个你可能未曾听说却很简单的建议,无论你是男是女,是刚毕业的职场菜鸟还是进入瓶颈期的职场老手都将受用。

是什么在工作中真正让我们感觉良好

丹·艾尔利

    曾被评为最棒的商学院教授演讲的丹·艾尔利的另一个TED Talk。不同于传统所认为的金钱驱动力,也不完全只是快乐这样的心理因素,驱动人们工作的原因还包括了持续的进步以及目标达成的使命感。他还带来了两个让人大开眼界的实验,探究人们面对工作时那些出乎意外而又微妙的态度。

即使差强人意也值得为之欢呼

莎拉·刘易斯

    当她开始在博物馆的第一份工作的时候,艺术史学家莎拉·刘易斯注意到:并不是每一样艺术品都是彻头彻尾的杰作。由此,她抛出了一个疑问:如何看待一败涂地和差强人意在人生中所占的比重。在我们追求梦想的道路上,实在上是一个个差强人意的目标达成推动我们的前进?


撰稿 黄蕙

编辑 Lynn


跳槽季,TED帮你拒绝浮躁(上)

   

    你是否一直在寻找一份幸福感高、挑战性强、能充分实现自身价值的工作?的确从来都没有一份工作叫做“钱多事儿少离家近”,很可能你面对的问题更多的是如何和不通人情的客户沟通,和行事诡异的同事相处,和让人抓狂的上司相处。如何找到真正适合自己的工作?或许以下这几个TED能给你一点灵感。

为什么你不能成就伟业

拉里·史密斯

   拉里·史密斯幽默而又直率地做了这个演说,他毫不做作地呼吁那些总给自己找借口的人重拾追求梦想的热情。“如果我当初……”这句话,在你在回忆往昔岁月的时候显得特别伤人。

    勿忘初心,方得始终。

温和的成功哲学

阿兰·德波顿

    “我们时常被告知生活在一个物质挂帅的年代,我们都是贪婪的人,我并不认为我们特别看重物质,而是我们生活在物质能带来大量情感反馈的时代。”著有《亲吻与诉说》、《爱情笔记》、《旅行的艺术》等脍炙人口作品的英伦才子阿兰·德波顿,在TED舞台上检视了我们对成功的迷思。

人们行为背后的动机

托尼·罗宾逊

    励志大师托尼·罗宾逊认为”人类6大需求”驱动着我们每个人的行动: 确定性(certainty), 不确定性(Uncertainty), 生命之意义(Significance), 关怀与爱(Connection and Love), 发展(Growth), 贡献(Contribution)。

    你现在为何而工作?你工作得开心吗?

下一篇文章中,我们将继续向大家推荐与职业选择相关的TED Talks,请期待!

撰稿 黄蕙

编辑 Lynn

穹顶之下,不应只是她与雾霾的“私人恩怨”

    沉寂了一年之后,柴静以一个母亲的身份,将这份她和雾霾之间的“私人恩怨”公之于众。

    《柴静雾霾调查:穹顶之下》,这部耗费了她两年前出书所得稿费、总投资约一百万的纪录片被誉为是非机构、非记者所做的信源最权威、信息最立体、视野最开阔、手段最丰富、最有行动感的雾霾调查。一年间她拜访国内外多家学术机构、职能部门,辗转多处污染现场。柴静怀揣着“人去做什么,是因为心底有爱惜的信念,以一个母亲的口吻为我们阐述了三个问题:

1.雾霾是什么?

2.它从哪里来?

3.我们怎么办?

环境污染,不仅是这一个母亲的私人恩怨。

环境污染,我们,都是当事人。

自然资源也有价

Pavan Sukhdev

    我们每天都不假思索地免费使用地球上的资源。如果我们必须为此支付一定款项,我们是不是会更珍惜这些资源并减少浪费呢?作为一个“大自然的银行家”,Pavan Sukhdev为地球上的资源估了价。启发性的图表将会引导你从另一个角度思考空气、水、树木的价值。

Video: 自然资源也有价——Pavan Sukhdev

保护海洋

Sylvia Earle

    Sylvia Earle是一位传奇的海洋学者,她与我们分享了令人惊奇的海洋图片——以及让人震惊的海洋生态急速衰退——正如她的TED大奖获奖祝愿:愿我们能与她一起参与到保护这个蓝色星球的行列中。

Video: 保护海洋——Sylvia Earle

    引用柴静在采访中的一段话为结语,给你,给我,给每个人。

    “人都是从无知到有知,但既然认识到了,又是一个传媒人,就有责任向大家说清楚。不耸动,也不回避,就是尽量说明白。因为如果大家低估了治理的艰巨和复杂,容易急,产生无望的情绪。如果太轻慢,不当回事,听之任之,更不行。所以尽可能公开地去说明白,也许可以有很多人象我一样有改变,为治理大气污染做一点事。”

部分内容整理自网易公开课。

撰稿王鹏

编辑王鹏   Lynn

离别了故乡,家又在何方

    多少人,离开自己日思夜念的故乡,去到另一个地方生活。却如候鸟一般,每年总要倾尽全力翻山涉水,张罗着往返之事。是否有静下来思考,究竟真正的“家”在何方呢?

    “家”这个字,被用得十分普遍,却对每一个不同的个体来说,有着不一样的含义:也许它是一双稚嫩的脚印,一盘饺子,一个誓言,一场婚礼……每当街头巷尾红色元素的中国风将路人们的脸映得透亮,这个不分个体的家,就被日历上的春节拉近了。我们匆匆乘坐各种交通工具赶路,无非就是因为那里有一幢散发特殊气息的建筑物,那里有”家”味道。


    Pico Iyer 是一名旅居作家,他拥有百分百的印度血统,拥有英国的大学毕业证,拥有美国永久居留权,以及拥有陪伴其在日本生活的日籍妻子。拥有如此多不同国家身份角色的他,在TEDGlobal 2013 中,发表题为“Where is home (家在何方)?”的演讲,带领大家思索家的意义:

video: Where is home——Pico Iyer

    在 Pico Iyer 的家被烧毁后,他说,家根本无法指向任何建筑物,家只存在于心里。用感情铸成的家,远比用泥土铸成的家更能称之为“家”。

    建筑物的家是一回事,心里的家又是一回事,有拥有家而到处漂泊的旅者,也有四处流浪没有家的浪子。家不仅仅是居住的地方,更是立足的地方,携囊出发的地方。但有时,“家”就像身份证一样并没想象中那么重要,就像你从哪里出发不重要一样,给你一扇任意门,你要知道你要到哪里才是重点。

    Pico Iyer 回忆,当他去香港、悉尼、温哥华时,发现大多数他遇见的孩子,都比他更国际化,也比他更富有多元文化。他们有一个和父母共同生活的家园,另一个和小伙伴共同玩耍的乐园,第三个家也许是他们碰巧待过的地方,第四个是他们的梦想乐土。或者还有更多……他们的全部生活,是收集不同地方的生活小碎片,拼凑成一整块彩色玻璃。对他们来说,家是一项进行着的工作,他们不断地将它更新、完善、修正。

    只有停止步伐,我们才能看得见未来的路,只有暂时跨出你的生活圈,才能拓宽世界,找到居住的房子。

    现在很多人,有意识地每天早上在房间的某个角落,远离电子设备静坐30分钟,寻找自我,或是每天晚上跑步,或放下手机和朋友促膝长谈。


家,说到底,不仅仅是你居住的地方,而是你立足的地方。

撰稿Sorcha 陈诚

编辑Ah Zee

诗朗诵:时至今日——致受欺凌者

Poetry has a way of putting life into perspective, and this one most definitely did.This poem To This Day moved me to tears. 当你看完这个TED演讲,你会说:我爱上了诗歌!

当TED演讲人名单上出现谢恩·科伊赞Shane Koyczan的名字,我没想起来是谁,可一看到人就想起来了——这不是2010年温哥华冬季奥运会上朗诵诗的那胖子嘛?!当时这位来自西北特区的诗人在台上声情并茂朗读代表加拿大精义的诗作《we are more》,给世人留下很深印象。

这次在TED演讲台上朗诵的【To This Day】来自他的反欺凌项目To This Day

To this Day

谢恩幼年被父母离弃,祖母将其拉扯大,童年期间因身体胖,同学给他起了外号”Pork Chop”,并饱受同学欺凌,在十几岁时他自己成为了欺凌同学的一个”学校小霸王”,而这正是他曾经最讨厌的形象。这些经的阴影一直伴随着他。

在2011年他完成了To This Day的朗读诗歌,而后他不断收到大量来信和反馈,被欺凌者诉说自己在学校的遭遇,甚至成年后留下的心灵阴影。

To This Day by Shane Koyczan

为唤起更多人对欺凌现象的关注,Shane邀请跟多人参与To This Day反欺凌项目。2013年2月以他诗作为蓝本,86位动画设计师以众包模式集体创作了一个动画视频。在网站VimeoToThisDay项目上你能看到以20秒为单位的各个视频小段。
这段视频在Youtube发布后引起强烈凡响,大量青少年和成人在其中看到自己的影子。

2013年他获TED邀请再度演绎这个作品。下面这是他在TED舞台上再度演绎这首饱含感情的诗朗诵。

心理学上儿童欺凌会形成心理阴影,严重增加日后成年患心理抑郁疾病几率。这个我本人可以证明:我和Shane的体形一样都是胖子(小时候是,现在还是,改不了了),在从小学到大学各个阶段获得不同外号胖子、老肥、猪兄等等等等,甚至我的地理老师也曾经说”瞧你那样子…长得跟土豆似的”… 这些都没什么,关键是在各个时期都有这样善良又恶毒的提醒:老肥,你对女孩子没有任何杀伤力…..我擦啊!这些曾经是我长期自卑的根源之一。

欺凌通常发生在儿童青少年之间,但也可发生在成年人(如老师)和儿童青少年之间。这里不仅仅是起绰号,也有口头和行为上的侮辱、小团伙的排斥欺侮,轻者给人留下心灵创伤,重者引发恶性事件。这个应当引起教育者和家庭的关注。

We grew up learning to cheer on the underdog because we see ourselves in them. We stem from a root planted in the belief that we are not what we were called. We are not abandoned cars stalled out and sitting empty on some highway, and if in some way we are, don’t worry. We only got out to walk and get gas. We are graduating members from the class of We Made It, not the faded echoes of voices crying out, “Names will never hurt me.” Of course they did. But our lives will only ever always continue to be a balancing act that has less to do with pain and more to do with beauty.小时候他们叫我胖子,老肥,看完这个,我TM爱上了诗歌:To This Day 致被欺凌者 http://t.cn/zYC7vqY http://t.cn/zHkRnDf 这一首反欺凌行为的诗朗诵,“时至今日”短片迅速感染了无数观众。在#TED 舞台上他再演绎这诗歌  无论是这个动画还是演讲都好棒!我爱上了诗歌!we grew up learning to cheer on the underdog coz we see ourselves in them

下面的诗文转载自To This Day 项目
When I was a kid
I used to think that pork chops and karate chops
were the same thing
I thought they were both pork chops
and because my grandmother thought it was cute
and because they were my favourite
she let me keep doing it

not really a big deal

one day
before I realized fat kids are not designed to climb trees
I fell out of a tree
and bruised the right side of my body

I didn’t want to tell my grandmother about it
because I was afraid I’d get in trouble
for playing somewhere that I shouldn’t have been

a few days later the gym teacher noticed the bruise
and I got sent to the principal’s office
from there I was sent to another small room
with a really nice lady
who asked me all kinds of questions
about my life at home

I saw no reason to lie
as far as I was concerned
life was pretty good
I told her “whenever I’m sad
my grandmother gives me karate chops”

this led to a full scale investigation
and I was removed from the house for three days
until they finally decided to ask how I got the bruises

news of this silly little story quickly spread through the school
and I earned my first nickname

pork chop

to this day
I hate pork chops

I’m not the only kid
who grew up this way
surrounded by people who used to say
that rhyme about sticks and stones
as if broken bones
hurt more than the names we got called
and we got called them all
so we grew up believing no one
would ever fall in love with us
that we’d be lonely forever
that we’d never meet someone
to make us feel like the sun
was something they built for us
in their tool shed
so broken heart strings bled the blues
as we tried to empty ourselves
so we would feel nothing
don’t tell me that hurts less than a broken bone
that an ingrown life
is something surgeons can cut away
that there’s no way for it to metastasize

it does

she was eight years old
our first day of grade three
when she got called ugly
we both got moved to the back of the class
so we would stop get bombarded by spit balls
but the school halls were a battleground
where we found ourselves outnumbered day after wretched day
we used to stay inside for recess
because outside was worse
outside we’d have to rehearse running away
or learn to stay still like statues giving no clues that we were there
in grade five they taped a sign to her desk
that read beware of dog

to this day
despite a loving husband
she doesn’t think she’s beautiful
because of a birthmark
that takes up a little less than half of her face
kids used to say she looks like a wrong answer
that someone tried to erase
but couldn’t quite get the job done
and they’ll never understand
that she’s raising two kids
whose definition of beauty
begins with the word mom
because they see her heart
before they see her skin
that she’s only ever always been amazing

he was a broken branch
grafted onto a different family tree
adopted
but not because his parents opted for a different destiny
he was three when he became a mixed drink
of one part left alone
and two parts tragedy
started therapy in 8th grade
had a personality made up of tests and pills
lived like the uphills were mountains
and the downhills were cliffs
four fifths suicidal
a tidal wave of anti depressants
and an adolescence of being called popper
one part because of the pills
and ninety nine parts because of the cruelty
he tried to kill himself in grade ten
when a kid who still had his mom and dad
had the audacity to tell him “get over it” as if depression
is something that can be remedied
by any of the contents found in a first aid kit

to this day
he is a stick on TNT lit from both ends
could describe to you in detail the way the sky bends
in the moments before it’s about to fall
and despite an army of friends
who all call him an inspiration
he remains a conversation piece between people
who can’t understand
sometimes becoming drug free
has less to do with addiction
and more to do with sanity

we weren’t the only kids who grew up this way
to this day
kids are still being called names
the classics were
hey stupid
hey spaz
seems like each school has an arsenal of names
getting updated every year
and if a kid breaks in a school
and no one around chooses to hear
do they make a sound?
are they just the background noise
of a soundtrack stuck on repeat
when people say things like
kids can be cruel?
every school was a big top circus tent
and the pecking order went
from acrobats to lion tamers
from clowns to carnies
all of these were miles ahead of who we were
we were freaks
lobster claw boys and bearded ladies
oddities
juggling depression and loneliness playing solitaire spin the bottle
trying to kiss the wounded parts of ourselves and heal
but at night
while the others slept
we kept walking the tightrope
it was practice
and yeah
some of us fell

but I want to tell them
that all of this shit
is just debris
leftover when we finally decide to smash all the things we thought
we used to be
and if you can’t see anything beautiful about yourself
get a better mirror
look a little closer
stare a little longer
because there’s something inside you
that made you keep trying
despite everyone who told you to quit
you built a cast around your broken heart
and signed it yourself
you signed it
“they were wrong”
because maybe you didn’t belong to a group or a click
maybe they decided to pick you last for basketball or everything
maybe you used to bring bruises and broken teeth
to show and tell but never told
because how can you hold your ground
if everyone around you wants to bury you beneath it
you have to believe that they were wrong

they have to be wrong

why else would we still be here?
we grew up learning to cheer on the underdog
because we see ourselves in them
we stem from a root planted in the belief
that we are not what we were called we are not abandoned cars stalled out and sitting empty on a highway
and if in some way we are
don’t worry
we only got out to walk and get gas
we are graduating members from the class of
fuck off we made it
not the faded echoes of voices crying out
names will never hurt me

of course
they did

but our lives will only ever always
continue to be
a balancing act
that has less to do with pain.

作者是TEDtoChina 微博主页钧,其个人微博:Lawrence治钧 现为国内顶级互动创意广告公司策略总监,业余时间负责TEDtoChina

 

如何做好TEDtalks这样的顶级演讲?

最近,Chris Anderson 先生在《哈佛商业周刊》发表了名为《如何做顶尖级演讲》(“How to give a killer presentation”)的文章,从如何更好地叙述与表达想法,演讲形式、现场表现与多媒体应用等方面分享了30多年来作为TED 大会策展人的经验,并引用多个他在工作中接触到的事例。此文由TEDxNanjing 外事翻译部成员首度翻译,供大家学习参考,了解TED 筹备组的精神与思想,也欢迎喜爱思考的各位对本文内容及翻译进行交流,各平台宣传使用!http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_772d87330101epr5.html

Chris-Anderson-TED-007

如何做顶尖级演讲
By Chris Anderson
TEDxNanjing 翻译&校对 曾冉 胡雪妮

一年多前,我和一些同事们在去肯尼亚内罗毕的路途中遇到了一个12岁叫Richard Turere的马赛族男孩,他给我们讲述了一个非常有趣的故事。他家在一个开阔的国家公园边上,以蓄养家畜为生,然而有一个大麻烦就是得保护牲畜免受狮子的侵害,特别是在夜间。Richard发现在牧场放置灯泡并不能阻挡狮子,不过当他持着电筒巡查时,狮子就不靠近了。打小时候起,他就对电子器件无比痴迷,并通过例如拆卸父母的收音机来自学。运用这些经验,他设计了一个由太阳能板、汽车电池以及摩托车转向灯构成的灯光系统,可以依次开灯关灯,营造出一种运动感,他希望可以借此吓跑狮子。在他安装了灯光系统后,狮子再也没有攻击家畜了。之后不久,肯尼亚的其他村庄也开始安置Richard的“驱狮灯”。

这么鼓舞人心的故事十分值得通过TED大会让更多的观众来了解,然而表面看起来,Richard并不太可能成为TED讲者。他十分羞涩,英语也说的结结巴巴。一旦他尝试介绍述自己的发明就会变得语无伦次。坦白来说,我们很难想象一个小孩站在1400个观众面前演讲,更何况这些观众已经习惯了听诸如Bill Gates、Ken Robinson爵士或Jill Bolte Taylor等大师级的演讲。

可是Richard的故事是如此引人入胜,我们太想邀请他了。在2013年大会举办的几个月前,我们和他一起准备提纲,寻找合适的切入点以及简洁且有逻辑性的叙事方式。得益于Richard的这个发明,他获得了肯尼亚顶尖学校的奖学金。借助申请奖学金的机会,他得以在真正的现场观众面前练习了几次演讲。关键的一点是他得能够建立足够的自信,从而闪耀出自己的个性。最终当他在长滩发表TED演讲时,你可以说他紧张,但紧张仅使他更加充满魅力——观众们全神贯注地聆听着他说的每一个词语,他们被Richard的每一个笑容感染。演讲结束时,回应他的是爆发般的欢呼与持续不断的掌声。

Richard Turere:我的一个与狮子和平共处的发明

在13岁男孩——Richard Turere所生活的马赛族,所有的牛畜都是极其重要的。但是狮子的袭击却变得越来越猖獗。 在这个短片里,通过鼓舞人心的演讲,你将会看到,这个年轻的发明家是如何利用他发明的太阳能方法安全地驱赶走捕食的狮子。


http://www.ted.com/talks/richard_turere_a_peace_treaty_with_the_lions.html

自三十年前第一届TED大会以来,跨越各领域的讲者如政治家、音乐家和电视演员在观众面前表现的要比不知名的学术家、科学家和作者更从容,后者中的一些在演讲时会感到极不自在。这么多年来我们探索出一套程序,帮助缺乏经验的讲者表达、演练并最终做出为人喜爱的演讲。这个程序一般在大会举办前九到六个月开始,包括不断修订讲稿、排练以及大量的微调。我们也一直在改进具体的方法——因为公众演讲艺术也随着时代变化而改变——但从公众的反馈来看,基本的一些方法是很有效果的:TED视频自2006年上线以来至今已被观看十亿多次。

基于这方面的经验,我相信要做一个好的演讲需要很多训练。在区区几小时内,演讲的内容和叙述方式就可以由混沌不清变得精彩动人。我们团队所专注的18分钟甚至更短形式的演讲经验,对其他演讲者也很有用,无论是做IPO路演的CEO,发布新产品的品牌经理,亦或寻求风头的创业者。

表达你的故事

除非你有值得一说的东西,不然你就做不了一个好的演讲。同时,对你想说的内容进行提炼和升华,并恰当地表达出来是准备过程中最重要的部分。

我们都知道人们很喜欢听故事,那些最引人入胜的叙述结构中有着大量的隐喻。当我想到要做一个扣人心弦的演讲,在我脑海中的是去带着观众踏上一段旅途。一个成功的演讲是一个小小的奇迹,人们由此看到不同的世界。

如果你把故事当作一段旅途,最重要的便是找出从哪里开始、到哪里结束。想想观众们对你的故事可能已经有了哪些了解、他们有多关心它,以此找到合适的起点。若你高估了观众的知识储备或者对话题的兴趣,亦或你开始使用术语搞得太专业,你就失去观众了。最棒的演讲者会非常快速地介绍主题,解释他们自己为什么会对这个话题感兴趣,并说服观众相信他们也应该关注这个主题。

我在演讲者的初稿中发现的最大问题是会涵盖太多内容。你无法在一个演讲中去概括整个行业。如果你试图塞进所有你知道的东西,那就没时间去举出关键的细节了,而且你的演讲会因各种抽象的语言而晦涩难懂,从而会导致本身就懂的人能听得懂,而之前不懂的人就不知所云了。你需要举出具体的例子来使你的想法有血有肉充实起来。所以,把你的演讲局限在可以被解释清楚的范围内,并且尽可能举出例子使其生动。我们在筹备前期给讲者的反馈大多是建议他们不要太冲动,不要一心想把所有东西都纳入到一个短短的演讲,相反应当深入下去把内容细节化。不要告诉我们你研究的整个领域,要给我们分享你独一无二的贡献成果。

当然,过度阐述或者纠结于内容的意义也不可行。对这种情况有另一套补救的方法。记住观众们很聪明,让他们自己去找寻出一些意义,去各自归纳收获的结论。

很多顶级的演讲具有着侦探小说般松散的叙事结构。演讲者引出问题开始演讲,然后介绍寻求解决方法的过程,直到恍然大悟的一刻,这时观众自会看到这一切叙述的意义。

如果一个演讲失败了,大多数是因为讲者没有找到好的表达方法,错误估计了观众的兴趣点,或者忽略了故事本身。即使话题再重要,没有足够的叙述作为铺垫,反而偶然冒出一些武断的意见总会让人感到不爽。没有一个递进的过程,就不会感到自己有所收获。

我参与过一个能源会议,市长和前州长两人出席了一个座谈。市长的演讲大量罗列了他的城市开展的各种大型项目。这样的演讲如同吹嘘自诩,就像他再次选举所用的成绩单或者宣传广告。演讲很快变得无聊起来。而当州长开始演讲的时候,她并没有列出各种成就,相反的,她分享了一个想法理念。她虽然也叙述了执政期间的诸多趣事,不过那个理念则是核心,所有故事都是围绕这个理念而来,故事本身也说得到位而有趣。这个演讲相较而言则更令人有兴趣。市长的潜在台词看起来是在说他有多伟大,而州长的演讲却表达了“这儿有一个很了不起的启示,我们都能从中获益”。

一般来说,人们对关于组织或者机构的演讲并没有什么兴趣(除非他们是其中成员)。理念和故事吸引着我们,但机构组织使我们厌烦——因为他们和我们没太大关系。(商务人士特别需要注意:不要吹嘘你的公司,与其那样还不如告诉我们你的公司正在解决什么问题。)

决定你的演方式

一旦你想好怎么说故事了,就可以开始重点考虑具体的演讲方式。发表一个演讲有三个主要的途径:你可以照着手稿或提词器直接读;你可以记下演讲提纲来提示你要讲的具体内容而不是把整个演讲都记下来;或者你可以记住全部内容,当然这需要大量的排练预演,直到你最终能完全把控演讲内容。

我的建议是:别照着读,不要使用提词器。提词器通常会有一段距离,人们会知道你在照着读。并且一旦他们发现了,他们的注意力就会转移。突然你就与观众变得疏远,从而变得太官方。在TED我们一般不允许照着读的行为,虽然几年前有个例外,因为有个讲者坚持使用显示器。我们在观众席的后面设置了一个屏幕,希望观众不会注意到它。起先他讲的很自然。可没过多久他僵住了,当人们发现“我勒个去他在照读”的时候,你可以看到一种很糟糕的消极情绪在观众间传递。虽然他的演讲内容很精彩,得到的评分却很低。

我们很多最受欢迎的TED演讲都是脱稿的。如果你有充裕的时间做这样的准备,这其实会是最好的演讲方式。不过不要低估这项准备工作所需要的时间。TED上最令人难忘的一个讲者是Jill Bolte Taylor,一位得过中风的大脑研究员。她分享了自己在这八年的大脑恢复期间学到了什么。在仔细雕琢并一个人练习了数十小时后,她又在一个观众面前演练了十几次以保证她的演讲可以成功。

吉尔·伯特·泰勒的奇迹
吉尔伯特泰勒所拥有的研究机会不是每一位脑科学家都所希望拥有的:她有严重中风,并且观察到她大脑的功能–运动,语言,自我意识-一个接一个关闭。这真是令人惊讶的故事。

http://www.ted.com/talks/jill_bolte_taylor_s_powerful_stroke_of_insight.html

显然,不是每一个演讲都值得如此耗费时间准备。不过如果你决定脱稿,那你就要懂得学习曲线的大概形状是什么样子。大多数人都会经历一个“抓狂的低谷期”,此时他们并不能很好地脱稿演讲。如果他们在这个低谷期间做演讲,观众就会有所发觉。他们们演讲听起来会如同在背东西,或者在他们竭力回想该说什么的时候,他们的眼神会放空或者上翻显得很尴尬。这样会造成演讲者和观众之间的关系变得疏远。

想要走出这个低谷期很简单,只要充分进行排练,演讲的每一句话都将会吐露得如此自然。之后你就可以把准备的重点放在演讲内容的意义和真实性上了。不要慌,你能行。

不过如果你没有足够时间准备并渡过低谷期,那就别试了。用小卡片记下演讲要点吧。只要你知道每一个点该如何展开就够了。注意记住如何从一个要点过渡到另一个要点。

与此同时,你还要注意自己的语气。有些讲者倾向于较为权威、装逼、强硬或激烈的语气,可是谈话式的语气会听上去更令人舒服。别强求,莫装逼,做好自己就行。

如果成功的演讲是一趟旅途,那就不要在过程中惹恼你的旅伴。有些讲者表现的太过于自我。他们表现的特牛逼、人生特圆满,观众就会特无语。千万别这样。

端正台风

就那些毫无经验的演讲者而言,肢体表现是演讲中最难的一部分,不过人们却会太容易高估它的作用。用对措辞,说好故事,演讲的内容要比你站姿如何、看起来是否紧张更大程度地决定演讲能否成功。对台风而言,稍加注意就够了。

我们在早期排练时候发现的最常见的错误是人们会过于频繁地移动身体。他们会晃来晃去,或者把重心在两腿间不停移动。人们在紧张的时候常常不自觉的这样,但是如此容易分散观众的注意力,而且使演讲者看上去没有说服力。只要减少下半身的移动就可大大提高台风。不过也有人能够在演讲时在舞台上自如地走动,我们认为只要足够自然倒也无妨。但对于大部分人最好还是站定了就不要晃动,仅通过手部姿势来强调重点。

在台上最关键的肢体语言或许应该是眼神交流。在观众席里找五六位看起来顺眼的,在演讲时眼神盯着他们看。把他们当成你很久没见到老朋友,想象你正把他们带进你的工作中来。这样的眼神交流将变得不可思议的有效,它比其他任何方法都要对你的演讲有帮助。即使你没有时间充足做好准备,必须得照着稿子读,那么抬起头做一些眼神上的交流将会产生巨大的反响。

对无经验的演讲者而言,另一个大挑战就是紧张,不管是在台前还是台上。不同人应对紧张有不同的处理方法。很多讲者在演讲前会呆在观众席中,这方法很有效,因为听前面的演讲者演讲可以转移注意力并减少紧张。哈佛商学院的一位教授Amy Cuddy研究了怎样的姿势可以产生气场,她运用了我见过的最不同寻常的准备技巧。她建议讲者们在演讲前到周围大步走一走,站在高处,或伸展四肢,这些姿势都可以使你倍感自信。她自己上台前就是如此做的,而且她做的演讲精彩非凡。不过我认为最简单的方法就是上台前做一下深呼吸,这很有效果。

总的来说,人们太于担心自己会紧张。紧张不是病,观众们其实也期待看到你紧张,紧张是一种自然地身体反应,并且事实上能使你表现得更好:它给予你表现的力量,并保持你思维敏捷。稳住呼吸,一切都没问题的!

承认紧张也可以带来魅力。要大胆展示出你的脆弱,无论是紧张亦或是你的语音语调,真的都是赢得观众倾心的有力武器。出版过有关内向性格的书并在2012年TED大会上演讲的Susan Cain就特怕做演讲。你可以感觉到她的脆弱,这种感受让观众都为她加油——所有人在结束后都想拥抱她。努力使她美丽,也使她的演讲成为当年最受欢迎的一个。

苏珊·凯恩:内向性格的力量
在社交和外向性格备受推崇的文化中,成为内向的人可能会很难,这甚至是可耻的。但是,当你聆听苏珊·凯恩激情澎湃的演讲时,你会发现内向的人给这个世界带来了惊人的天赋和能力,这是值得鼓励和庆祝的。

http://www.ted.com/talks/susan_cain_the_power_of_introverts.html

恰当采用多媒体技术

在我们处理过的所有多媒体文件里,用的最多的应该就是幻灯片。现在大多数人都知道PPT的诀窍:保持简洁;不要把幻灯片做成演讲稿(如列出你所要讲的各点——这些最好写在你手中的小卡片里);不要大声重复读出幻灯片上的内容。除了可能出现类似于使用提词器时会出现的问题之外——比如“我勒个去她也在照读!”——往往只有最新鲜的信息才能调动人们的兴趣,人们不喜欢重复地看到和听到相同的信息。现在大家应该都很明白这点,但如果去各种公司看看,每天依然有人在演讲时犯这种错误。

许多顶尖的TED演讲者不用幻灯片,而且很多演讲内容也不需要它。如果你展示一些照片插图可以让话题更生动的话,那就用吧,否则至少对于演讲的某些部分来说就考虑不要用。如果你要使用幻灯片,PPT的替代品也是值得一试的。比如,TED的投资对象Prezi,这家公司的演示软件提供了一种聚焦追踪式的二维画面。与传统的平面图像切换方式相比,这个演示软件允许用户根据需要移动或者放大演示的画面。恰当地采用多媒体技术可以极大提高演讲的视觉冲击力并加深其内涵。

艺术家、建筑师、摄影师和设计家会更多地使用影像资料。幻灯片可以帮助讲者更好地表达、把握节奏并且能在讲者不得不使用专业用语时帮助观众更好地理解。(艺术很难用言语去表达,用视觉来体验更好)。我看过一些艺术家或设计师的很棒的演讲,他们将幻灯片的图片设置为每15秒切换一次。我还看过演讲者跟随一段视频进行演讲。这可以帮助保证演讲连贯性和节奏。比如工业设计师Ross Lovegrove的TED视觉演讲,他使用了这些手段,带观众踏入了一段难忘的创造之旅。

Ross Lovegrove 分享有机设计
设计师 Ross Lovegrove 说明他的「无脂」设计哲学, 并赏析几件他的独特产品,包含 Ty Nant 水瓶及 Go 椅。

http://www.ted.com/talks/ross_lovegrove_shares_organic_designs.html

另一种创造性的表达方式或许是在演讲中适当地停顿,让作品自己去表现。动力学雕塑家Reuben Margolin使用此方法来感染他人。关键就在于不要想着“我正在演讲”,而是想着“我想要给观众一个关于我的作品的难忘体验”。艺术家和建筑师最可能搞杂的就是把他们的演讲用抽象概念化的语言来表现。

罗本·马格林: 用时光与木头雕成的浪
罗本·马格林是一个动态雕刻家, 他创作了一个个像波浪一样流动的作品。用接下来的九分钟陶醉,沉思在他那包含着数学与自然的艺术里。

http://www.ted.com/talks/reuben_margolin_sculpting_waves_in_wood_and_time.html

视频对很多讲者都很有用处。例如在一个关于乌鸦的智慧的TED演讲中,科学家播放了一个视频片段,展示了一只乌鸦弯出一个钩子勾出管子里的食物的过程——也就是说一只乌鸦创造工具的过程。这段视频比任何语言都更有说服力。

恰当地使用视频可以让演讲变得效果非凡,不过也有一些常犯的错误需要避免。视频剪辑需要足够短——如果长于1分钟,你就有可能要失去观众了。特别需注意的是,不要使用企业视频,这看起来像自我宣传或电视广告,观众早已看腻了。任何带背景音的视频都会让人倒胃口。而且无论如何,别放你自己被如CNN等采访的视频。我看过演讲者这么干过,真烂透了,没人会想要了解你的自大。观众已经在你面前听你现场演讲了,为什么还让他们同时到看你出现在新闻采访中?

整合起来

我们在演讲前至少六个月开始帮助演讲者准备他们的演讲内容,这样他们可以有充足的预演时间。我们希望讲者可以在活动一个月前定下最终的演讲。在最后的几周内他们预演的越多,最后的效果就越好。理想的情况下,他们会自己单独彩排,并且在一名观众前预演。

在其他人面前预演有一个问题,即听者会觉得自己有义务来提供反馈或者提出建设性的批评。不同人的反馈常常差异巨大甚至互相矛盾。这可能会让讲者不知所措甚至抓狂,所以挑选谁来观看预演并给出反馈尤为重要。总的来说,有丰富演讲经验的人能给出好的建议。

2011年我自己从中学到了很多。我的同事,TED Global活动的策划者Bruno Giussani指出即使我在TED里工作了九年,主持过各种大会,介绍过那么多演讲者,我却从未做过一个属于自己的TED演讲。所以他邀请我来做一次演讲,我接受了。

我感到了比预想还要大的压力。就算我花了那么多时间指导过别人如何构建故事框架,当换成自己的故事时,还是会变得很困难。我决定脱稿演讲,讲关于网络视频如何促进全球创新的话题,但这个过程很艰难:即便我花了那么多个小时,从同事那里得到各种建议,我还是感到有些措手无错甚至开始怀疑自己的能力。我真的感觉自己可能要歇菜了。在登台的前一刻我依旧很紧张。不过之后一切都变得那么顺心如意。这次演讲肯定不算最棒的TED演讲之一,不过它还是得到了好评,我也扛过了这段巨大压力。

总之我亲身体会了我们的讲者在这30年里所挖掘出来的东西:演讲的成功取决于想法的质量、叙述表达的方式以及演讲者的感情。这和内容的实质有关,而不是演讲的风格或是绚烂的多媒体。一个演讲的表述很容易通过准备期间的指导和训练来完善,但故事和想法本身却不是能被训练出来的——演讲者心中必须要有货。如果你有要说的东西,你就可以做出很赞的演讲。不过如果没有一个中心思想,那你最好是别说了。拒绝演讲邀请,回去工作,等到你真正有值得分享的想法再来。

记住一点,做出好的演讲没有捷径可走。最令人难忘的演讲总是有大家前所未闻的新鲜东西。最糟糕的演讲则充满陈词滥调。所以任何情况下都不要试图照搬我这里提供的各种建议,当然了,要了解这些建议的大体意思,但演讲内容终归还是要由你自己拟定,因为你知道你和你的想法与种不同的地方。发挥你的长处,做出真正属于你自己的演讲。

—————————————–English Version——————————————–

How to Give a Killer Presentation

by Chris Anderson

A little more than a year ago, on a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is protecting the animals from lions—especially at night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the field with a torch, the lions stayed away. From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of movement that he hoped would scare off the lions. He installed the lights, and the lions stopped attacking. Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.”

The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting. When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in front of 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor.

But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to speak. In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to frame his story—to find the right place to begin, and to develop a succinct and logical arc of events. On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to one of Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to practice the talk several times in front of a live audience. It was critical that he build his confidence to the point where his personality could shine through. When he finally gave his talk at TED, in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only made him more engaging—people were hanging on his every word. The confidence was there, and every time Richard smiled, the audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation.

Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations. Over the years, we’ve sought to develop a process for helping inexperienced presenters to frame, practice, and deliver talks that people enjoy watching. It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and involves cycles of devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and plenty of fine-tuning. We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the art of public speaking is evolving in real time—but judging by public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times.

On the basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable. In a matter of hours, a speaker’s content and delivery can be transformed from muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to VCs.

Frame Your Story

There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about. Conceptualizing and framing what you want to say is the most vital part of preparation.

Find the Perfect Mix of Data and Narrative

 

We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to engage people. When I think about compelling presentations, I think about taking an audience on a journey. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward.

 

If you frame the talk as a journey, the biggest decisions are figuring out where to start and where to end. To find the right place to start, consider what people in the audience already know about your subject—and how much they care about it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them. The most engaging speakers do a superb job of very quickly introducing the topic, explaining why they care so deeply about it, and convincing the audience members that they should, too.

The biggest problem I see in first drafts of presentations is that they try to cover too much ground. You can’t summarize an entire career in a single talk. If you try to cram in everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. You need specific examples to flesh out your ideas. So limit the scope of your talk to that which can be explained, and brought to life with examples, in the available time. Much of the early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly. Instead, go deeper. Give more detail. Don’t tell us about your entire field of study—tell us about your unique contribution.

Of course, it can be just as damaging to overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of a talk. And there the remedy is different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. Let them figure some things out for themselves. Let them draw their own conclusions.

Many of the best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story. The speaker starts out by presenting a problem and then describes the search for a solution. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in a meaningful way.

If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of interest, or neglected to tell a story. Even if the topic is important, random pontification without narrative is always deeply unsatisfying. There’s no progression, and you don’t feel that you’re learning.

I was at an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of impressive projects his city had undertaken. It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. It quickly got boring. When the governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an idea. Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in office, but the idea was central—and the stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. The mayor’s underlying point seemed to be how great he was, while the governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.”

As a general rule, people are not very interested in talks about organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of them). Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to relate to. (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about your company; rather, tell us about the problem you’re solving.)

Plan Your Delivery

Once you’ve got the framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery. There are three main ways to deliver a talk. You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. You can develop a set of bullet points that map out what you’re going to say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for word. Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to the point where you internalize every word—verbatim.

My advice: Don’t read it, and don’t use a teleprompter. It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. And as soon as they sense it, the way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal. We generally outlaw reading approaches of any kind at TED, though we made an exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on using a monitor. We set up a screen at the back of the auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it. At first he spoke naturally. But soon he stiffened up, and you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to us!” The words were great, but the talk got poor ratings

Many of our best and most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for word. If you’re giving an important talk and you have the time to do this, it’s the best way to go. But don’t underestimate the work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor, a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. She talked about what she learned during the eight years it took her to recover. After crafting her story and undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of times in front of an audience to be sure she had it down.

Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of investment of time. But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to the learning curve. Most people go through what I call the “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the talk. If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. This creates distance between the speaker and the audience.

Getting past this point is simple, fortunately. It’s just a matter of rehearsing enough times that the flow of words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on delivering the talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there.

But if you don’t have time to learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try. Go with bullet points on note cards. As long as you know what you want to say for each one, you’ll be fine. Focus on remembering the transitions from one bullet point to the next.

Also pay attention to your tone. Some speakers may want to come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Don’t orate. Just be you.

If a successful talk is a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. Some speakers project too much ego. They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down. Don’t let that happen.

Develop Stage Presence

For inexperienced speakers, the physical act of being onstage can be the most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Getting the words, story, and substance right is a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous. And when it comes to stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way.

The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is that people move their bodies too much. They sway from side to side, or shift their weight from one leg to the other. People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. There are some people who are able to walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. But the vast majority are better off standing still and relying on hand gestures for emphasis.

Perhaps the most important physical act onstage is making eye contact. Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in the eye as you speak. Think of them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to date on your work. That eye contact is incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to help your talk land. Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from a script, looking up and making eye contact will make a huge difference.

Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in advance of the talk and while they’re onstage. People deal with this in different ways. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in the earlier speakers can distract you and limit nervousness. Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk. But I think the single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. It works.

In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Nerves are not a disaster. The audienceexpects you to be nervous. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to perform and keeps your mind sharp. Just keep breathing, and you’ll be fine.

 

Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement. Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the most powerful ways to win over an audience, provided it is authentic. Susan Cain, who wrote a book about introverts and spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and it created this dynamic where the audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to hug her afterward. The fact that we knew she was fighting to keep herself up there made it beautiful, and it was the most popular talk that year.

Plan the Multimedia

With so much technology at our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to use, at a minimum, presentation slides. By now most people have heard the advice about PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on note cards); and don’t repeat out loud words that are on the slide. Not only is reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to us, too!”—but information is interesting only once, and hearing and seeing the same words feels repetitive. That advice may seem universal by now, but go into any company and you’ll see presenters violating it every day.

Many of the best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and many talks don’t require them. If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. If not, consider doing without, at least for some parts of the presentation. And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to PowerPoint. For instance, TED has invested in the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of a two-dimensional landscape. Instead of a flat sequence of images, you can move around the landscape and zoom in to it if need be. Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of a talk and enhance its meaning.

Artists, architects, photographers, and designers have the best opportunity to use visuals. Slides can help frame and pace a talk and help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to talk about—better to experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in which the artist or designer put slides on an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds. I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by video, speaking along to it. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk, for instance, used this technique to bring the audience along on a remarkable creative journey.

Another approach creative types might consider is to build silence into their talks, and just let the work speak for itself. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to powerful effect. The idea is not to think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language.

Video has obvious uses for many speakers. In a TED Talk about the intelligence of crows, for instance, the scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of a tube—essentially creating a tool. It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said.

Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to tune those out. Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to go along with you on your ego trip. The people in your audience are already listening to you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen?

Putting It Together

We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of time to practice. We want people’s talks to be in final form at least a month before the event. The more practice they can do in the final weeks, the better off they’ll be. Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on their own and in front of an audience.

The tricky part about rehearsing a presentation in front of other people is that they will feel obligated to offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is why it’s important to be choosy about the people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to offer feedback. In general, the more experience a person has as a presenter, the better the criticism he or she can offer.

I learned many of these lessons myself in 2011. My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out that although I’d worked at TED for nine years, served as the emcee at our conferences, and introduced many of the speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself. So he invited me to give one, and I accepted.

It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in a way that felt compelling was difficult. I decided to memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in a lot of hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. I really thought I might bomb. I was nervous right up until the moment I took the stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it.

Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for three decades: Presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation. Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing.

10 Ways to Ruin a Presentation

As hard as it may be to give a great talk, it’s really easy to blow it. Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid.

1. Take a really long time to explain what your talk is about.
2. Speak slowly and dramatically. Why talk when you can orate?
3. Make sure you subtly let everyone know how important you are.
4. Refer to your book repeatedly. Even better, quote yourself from it.
5. Cram your slides with numerous text bullet points and multiple fonts.
6. Use lots of unexplained technical jargon to make yourself sound smart.
7. Speak at great length about the history of your organization and its glorious achievements.
8. Don’t bother rehearsing to check how long your talk is running.
9. Sound as if you’re reciting your talk from memory.
10. Never, ever make eye contact with anyone in the audience.

 

The single most important thing to remember is that there is no one good way to do a talk. The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here. Take the bulk of it on board, sure. But make the talk your own. You know what’s distinctive about you and your idea. Play to your strengths and give a talk that is truly authentic to you.

学术创新的教育影响学生

我们如何去教育个性迥异的学生?

在美国有这么个学校,无论是艺术、人文、科学还是工程类院系,这个学校招入校的学生并不一定是佼佼者,而是有色人种或那些常被忽视的人群,这个学校 帮助大量非洲裔学生、拉丁裔学生和低收入家庭学生成为世界顶尖的科技和工程人才——UMBC——我一下就记住这个大学的缩写名字,因为它的校长曾经开玩笑 说”我们大学的缩写UMBC可以被翻译成You Must Be Chinese”,这就是马里兰大学巴尔的摩分校,这个校长是弗里曼·洛堡斯基(Freeman A. Hrabowski, III)。

有人音译他的名字费里曼,但我觉得这失去Freeman英文名字的意义。Freeman发起了“Meyerhoff Scholars”教育计划,旨在帮助有潜力的少数族裔学生掌握必要技能,攻读科学技术、工程和数学等学位,从而培养出大量取得这些领域博士学位的非裔美 国学生。他被奥巴马总统任命为非裔美国人优质教育总统顾问委员会主席,并已经赢得了无数的奖项和认可,其中包括被 “时代”杂志评为2012年100位最有影响力的人物之一,Freeman还被马州华盛顿少数族裔公司协会授予“年度远见卓识奖”。

Freeman的背景故事应该从他上一代人说起。他的母亲在种族歧视严重的南部小镇长大,小时候做女佣,但很喜欢泡图书馆自学,后来成为数学教师, 她重视Freeman的教育,向儿子灌输对知识的热爱、对教育力量的理解。Freeman自小酷爱数学,喜欢阅读,成绩很好,都是A,当老师在课堂上宣布 “作业有10道题目”的时候,他会大喊“再来10道!”—— 这小子讨人厌吧,我小时候班里哪个尖子生敢这么嚣张,放学我也得修理他。那时小小的Freeman就开始纠结一个问题:我们怎样让更多的孩子喜欢学习?

小时候Freeman不愿去教堂的,喜欢躲在最后一排做数学题,一次他听到一个男人说 “如果我们的孩子们能够参与到伯明翰的和平示威游行中来,那么我们就能够向全美国人民宣告,就连小孩子都能辨别出其中的对错,而我们的孩子们有多么想要得 到最好的教育” ,这一下触动到Freeman, 别人告诉他说演讲人就是马丁·路德·金博士,回家后他斩钉截铁要求“我要去参加游行!我想去,我想要成为他们的一员。”而父母却坚决不同意。

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Freeman那是才12岁,他和父母争辩:“知道么,作为父母你们言行不一。你们让我去教堂,让我去听演讲, 当这个人号召我去参与的时候,你们却说‘不行’。” 这个场景是不是太熟悉了?我们父母经常为自己和孩子制定不同的标准,我们期望孩子按照我们的说法成长,我们告诉他们要勇敢、要真诚、要有爱、坚强、要言行 一致,但却经常在不知不觉中将我们成人的孱弱、虚伪、圆滑、懒惰、贪婪曝露给孩子。

还好,Freeman的父母想了整整一个晚上,整晚都在哭泣着为Freeman担心和祈祷,虽然他参加游行有危险,可最终父母的内心战胜了胆怯, 允许12岁的Freeman参加游行。小孩子Freeman很高兴,开始想像自己游行时被狼狗追咬,被高压水枪冲的画面,他也突然有害怕了,从这段经历中 Freeman学到一个道理:有时候有些人满怀勇气去做一件事情,或许并不表示他真的有那样的勇气,他只是相信这件事情非常重要,一定要去做!

这次游行的结果是Freeman被关了5天监狱,马丁·路德·金博士拜访Freeman的父母,称赞说 “你们的孩子今天所做必将会影响到尚未出生的下一代”。和马丁.路德.金一起战斗过经历让Freeman受益匪浅,他不但深受民权运动影响,成为儿童领袖,而且这也启迪他让他在教育之路上走得非常远。

Freeman从小就明白自己的诉求很简单,就是希望接受更好的教育,有很多新的课本,学校不仅拥有好的老师,还能拥有足够的教育资源。现在三分 之二的美国人是在1963年之后出生的,多数人通过电影、电视或书籍知道当年伯明翰少年游行或许跟看电影《林肯》的感觉差不多——历史太遥远了。从这个表达诉求的游行中现代的年青人能学到什么?Freeman在TED演讲台上总结:最重要的是学生能有教育的主动性,他们学习的热情可以被启发出来——渴望学习,并且热衷提出自己的问题。

Freeman和马丁路德金在1963年入狱,而同年马里兰大学巴尔的摩分校(UMBC)创办,现在Freeman负责领导该校的事务。这所学校 的创办意义重大是因为马里兰州属于南方州(美国南方的种族歧视更严重)实际上,这是当时全美第一所自创办之日就没有进行种族限制的大学,黑人学生、白人学 生和其他肤色学生都在此求学,这是一场持续了50年的实验,目的是希望大学乃至国家拥有这样一种教育体系,让学生不分背景成分的人来此求学,学习如何与人 合作、如何领导团队学会相互帮助。
UMBC大学从60年代开始在艺术、人文和社会科学领域发力,培养了大量的人文和法律人才,大量的艺术家,和演艺事业的佼佼者,学校现在重视非洲和 拉丁裔等少数种群学生在自然科学和工程学领域的努力 。Freeman坦承在自然科学和工程学领域所有的美国民族都表现的不尽如人意。那如何解决这个问题?

UMBC采用四种办法来帮助这些弱勢学生提高。

法宝一:提高期望。Freeman强调努力才有成功,他说:我不管你有多聪明,或自己自己觉得自己多聪明, “聪明”在这里仅仅表示你准备好去学习。你要有兴趣学习新东西,这让你兴奋,让你提出高质量的问题。他举例:诺贝尔奖得主 I. I. Rabi 小时候住在纽约,其他家长问孩子: “今天在学校学了什么新东西?” 而他的犹太裔妈妈问的就不一样: “Izzy,今天你有提出有质量的问题么?” 所以“高期望值”需要兴趣作为支撑,需要鼓励年轻人的好奇心,学生变得更加主动地从学校这里寻找帮助,而不仅仅是为了通过考试拿到学位,而是更进一步的追 求更高的目标。这里我想要着重谈谈这句:It’s hard work that makes the difference. I don’t care how smart you are or how smart you think you are. Smart simply means you’re ready to learn.因为我从小愚钝,从小学到大学从来没被划在聪明学生的圈子里,班主任给好学生吃小灶从没我的份儿!可Freeman让我看到how to make difference.

法宝二:分数不是唯一。分数是很重要,但是并不是最重要的。Freeman鼓励学生建立自己的圈子,在科学和工 程领域竞争非常残酷,学生没有获得团队合作方面的教育,而教育者要做的就是把他们结合起来,让他们相互了解,建立信任,相互支持,学习如何提出有质量的问 题,以及如何清晰的阐述概念。自己拿到高分是一回事,能帮助他人做得更好是另外一回事,这种责任感对于整个世界的影响都是巨大的,所以让学生之间建立联 系,这点非常重要。啊!这个让我想到我们TEDtoChina的志愿者们,自己看大量TED和其他的海外课程,开拓视野,同时,利用个人的盈余时间和盈余 技能将自己所看、所想分享给跟多需要这些ideas的朋友们——自己能从不同角度看世界是一回事,能帮助其他人看世界,是另一回事!——forgive me,时刻不忘做广告 :)

法宝三:依靠专业人士培养专业人士。术业有专攻,在艺术领域艺术家培养出新的艺术家,在社会科学领域也是如此, 这是通用法则,自然科学和工程学领域也一样。学生需要在科学家的带动下充满热情开始相关的工作。他举例,有一年巴尔的摩下了很大的暴风雪,一名科学家在暴 风雪刚过去就跑回实验室工作,而他所有的学生都坚持呆在实验室,他们自带干粮,把实验室挤满了,他们把这些工作视为生命的一部分,而不仅仅是作业而已,他 们知道他们在研究的是艾滋病防治,他们醉心于创造新蛋白质的过程,每个人都非常专注,没有什么场景比这更美好的。在此,很想吐槽国内大学… … 算了,行政干预教学的事情太多了,都知道,不说也罢。

法宝四:当你已经给了他们高度期望,已经建立了学生圈子,已经有专业人士培养,你需要找到乐于跟学生交流的老师,教员用心观察学生的表现,用心去识别谁在用心听,谁又在开小差,并且愿意和学生一起解决问题。

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在UMBC大学这套作法实实在在起了作用。UMBC也响应重新设计课程,改革了化学专业、物理专业,现在正在尝试改革人文和社科专业,太多这些专业 的学生觉得课程无聊了,他们不愿意干坐在那里听别人讲课,他们需要参与其中。比如改革化学课程,UMBC强调合作的重要性,不是死板的传授理论,而是让学 生自己去挑战这些理论,鼓励他们利用所掌握的技术解决生物科技公司遇到的实际问题,越来越多的课程正在按照这样的方式改革。这称为学术创新

UMBC也在改革师范教育和IT女性培养计划(从2000年至今计算机专业女学生比例已经下降了79%),大学建立学生之间的联系,鼓励女学生、少 数裔学生以及所有的学生跟教员一起工作,让教员指导他们,当然最最重要的是学生的自我意识,他们心中的梦想和价值将会改变世界,这才真真叫人激动!

Freeman在12岁时被关在伯明翰监狱时可没想到一个伯明翰的黑人小P孩竟然有一天成为一所拥有来自150个国家学生的大学的校长,这所学校的学生并不满足于混个文凭,他们热爱学习,他们享受做到最好,他为这些学生自豪,因为这些学生有能力改变世界。

亚里士多德说:“优秀绝不会出自偶然,优秀是强烈的动机、不懈的努力和智慧的共同结果,它体现了所有选项中最具智慧的一个。” 接下来他的的话更令人震撼不已“决定你命运的,不是机会,而是选择。” 不是机遇,而是你的选择,决定了你的命运、梦想和价值。

Excellence is never an accident, It is the result of high intention, sincere effort and intelligent execution. It represents the wisest option among many alternatives. Choice, not chance, determines your destiny, dreams and values。

文章转自博客 Lawrence.im

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所有的社交媒体平台——墙内墙外——都可以看到我们的身影,一个都不能少.

作者:Lawrence治钧Director@TEDtoChina 从事数字媒体工作为生,过去几年来业余时间化身@TEDtoChina主页君在微博、微信、Twitter上分享TED演讲。个人在推特上有些特别粉丝,比如美国总统奥巴马、影星汤姆克鲁斯、英国唐宁街10号、韩国青瓦台、澳大利亚总理等等都是他的粉丝….过年过节会给他们发私信致以亲切的问候…

能持久的意志力是成功关键

  • 丘吉尔说:成功的秘诀就是:坚持、坚持、再坚持
  • 股神”巴菲特成功的秘诀:耐力胜过脑力
  • 朱熹:立志不坚,终不济事。
  • 毛泽东:苟有恒,何必三更起五更眠;最无益,只怕一日曝十日寒
  • …….

这样的名言警句我年青时背过不少,但回头想想,什么也没有坚持下来什么,除了每天看两三个TED演讲坚持了多年,并通过TEDtoChina分享给更多人,算来现在也有一千多个演讲了,从个人开拓视野,思考新知的角度来说,这是一种成功。

关于意志力、持久心对于『成功』的影响大多是一两句的泛泛而谈,很少有人从心理学或者统计学上做深入研究。在2013年的TED教育专题上Angela Lee就分享了她在这方面的研究。

AngelaPhoto

Angela在27岁时辞去很悲催的管理咨询工作,转而到纽约公立学校教七年级数学。她发现最好和最差学生的差异并不仅仅是智商,坚韧的性格起很大作用,几年的教学经验使她相信:我们的教育所需要的是一种对学生、对学习更好的理解—— 从动机的角度、 从心理的角度去理解,而不仅仅是智商单一的维度。后来Angela继续她的心理学博士学习,研究儿童与成人在各种艰巨挑战中的表现,看谁会成功?为什么会成功?

她和研究团队去西点军校,尝试预测哪些学员能通过军事训练,哪些会放弃;去看全国拼字比赛,预测哪些孩子能在比赛中笑到最后;研究在非常艰苦的环境下工作的新教师,预测哪些教师能坚持这份职业,预测哪些教师教出的学生成绩的提高最为显著;她和公司合作预测哪些销售人员能保住饭碗?谁能赚最多钱?… …在不同的背景下,她发现意志力指标是观测重点,而非社交能力、美丽的外貌、健康的身体,更不是智商。

意志力是什么?是面对长远目标时的热情和毅力,是有耐力的表现,是日复一日依然对未来坚信不已——不只是这周、 不只是这个月,而是年复一年地用心、努力工作来实现所坚信的那个未来。意志力是将生活看作是一场马拉松而非短跑

Angela在芝加哥公立学校研究意志力时请数以千计高中生填写关于意志力的问卷,然后等了大约一年多看看谁会毕业。结果发现,意志力越坚定的孩子毕业的可能性明显越高,而家庭收入,标准化测验的分数等指标则的相关性则没那么强。她的调查资料非常清楚地揭示有很多才华横溢的人并不能坚持到底。事实上,意志力通常与才华无关,有时甚至成反比。

意志力不仅仅对学校学生重要,创业者、普通员工任何人都很重要。在我组织TEDx活动时认识很多NGO从业者、创业者、艺术家、成功企业家等,他们都是有故事的人,在和他们的访谈中,他们都有一个共通点:不懈的坚持、强大的意志力让他们成为与众不同的、脱颖而出的一群人。

意志力如此重要,如何锻炼加强这种性格要素?科学界对于如何锻炼意志力知之甚少。家长经常问老师 “如何锻炼孩子们的意志力? 我怎么教会孩子坚实的职业道德? 怎样才能让他们有长远的动力?” 这个没人能回答,如果哪位家长来问我,我会反问:您为人父母,你有意志力嘛?您能给孩子做个意志力的榜样吗?我相信父母是培养孩子意志力的第一责任人。

关于锻炼孩子们的意志, 到目前为止最好的理论斯坦福大学Carol Dweck教授的“成长型思维模式”理论,这个理论相信学习的能力不是一成不变的,它会由于你的努力发生变化。当孩子们在学习大脑的相关知识,以及大脑在面对挑战时会怎样变化和成长时,他们更有可能在失败时继续坚持,因为他们不相信他们永远会失败。

这个TED演讲人Angela也令人钦佩,她在研究学生意志力项目上坚持多年,看看她其中跨越一年的高中生毕业项目就知道,她有不懈的意志,做研究也需要这样的耐力,这个是我们很多研究人员缺乏的。

意志力决定你的未来。Grit is sticking with your future — day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years — and working really hard to make that future a reality 不懈的意志,我缺,我太缺了!我是反面教材。

TEDtoChina微信

所有的社交媒体平台——墙内墙外——都可以看到我们的身影,一个都不能少

作者:Lawrence治钧Director@TEDtoChina 从事数字媒体工作为生,过去几年来业余时间化身@TEDtoChina主页君在微博、微信、Twitter上分享TED演讲。个人在推特上有些特别粉丝,比如美国总统奥巴马、影星Tom Course、英国唐宁街10号、韩国青瓦台、澳大利亚总理等等都是他的粉丝….过年过节会给他们发私信致以亲切的问候…